Determination of Engineering Properties of Cactus Pear (Opuntia)
Ajay Makwana , Himanshi Sabhadiya
Wild cactus pears (Opuntia spp.) were collected from five locations on Turkey's southeastern coast, in the Mediterranean region. The fruit and seed characteristics were hugely affected by the site. Colletotrichum species of fungi produce anthracnose, particularly harms cactus pears in particular. A wet light brown rot with light pink, spore-producing pustules on the surface is a sign of infection. Cactus pears available in a multitude of tastes, textures, and colours, with some of them proving beneficial to health and used in drug and cosmetic items. The measurement of engineering properties of cactus fruit can be beneficial for designing various processing and harvesting equipment, product development, food quality control, and food processing Cactus (Opuntia) has stood commercially exploited for example medicinal, energy, fruit, vegetable, forage besides dye yielding crop cutting-edge the dry besides half-dry parts of the world. This study focus on engineering properties and textural property of Cactus pear fruit namely length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, weight, sphericity, volume, density, and firmness, ripeness of Cactus pear were observed/determined, which can be useful for the further processing of cactus pear.
Cactus Pear, Cactus Fruits, Engineering Properties, Food, Plant, Water
 E. Ramírez-Moreno et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cactus pear (Opuntia) seed oils,” J. Food Qual., 2017, doi: 10.1155/2017/3075907.
 S. Kumar et al., “Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) productivity, proximal composition and soil parameters as affected by planting time and agronomic management in a semi-arid region of india,” Agronomy, 2021, doi: 10.3390/agronomy11081647.
 O. Kabas, A. Ozmerzi, and I. Akinci, “Physical properties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus india L.) grown wild in Turkey,” J. Food Eng., 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.01.016.
 C. M. Reemts, P. Conner, G. K. Janssen, and K. Wahl, “Survival of planted star cactus, Astrophytum asterias, in southern Texas,” Southwest. Nat., 2014, doi: 10.1894/N05-JB-40.1.
 Z. T. Tsegay, C. B. Sathyanarayana, and S. M. Lemma, “Optimization of cactus pear fruit fermentation process for wine production,” Foods, 2018, doi: 10.3390/foods7080121.
 K. B. da Silva et al., “Cactus pear as roughage source feeding confined lambs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and economic analysis,” Agronomy, 2021, doi: 10.3390/agronomy11040625.
 C. Albano et al., “Betalains, phenols and antioxidant capacity in cactus pear [opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill.] fruits from Apulia (South Italy) genotypes,” Antioxidants, 2015, doi: 10.3390/antiox4020269.
 C. D. C. Da Silva, A. S. Menezes, M. F. Aragão, L. G. Pinheiro Neto, F. J. C. Moreira, and G. M. Sampaio, “Initial growth of forage cactus varieties under different water salinity levels,” IRRIGA, 2021, doi: 10.15809/irriga.2021v26n1p55-64.
 S. H. Park, B. G. Jeong, W. Song, J. Jung, and J. Chun, “Enhancement of functional and sensory properties of eastern prickly pear (Opuntia humifusa) by fermentation with yuza peel and guava leaf,” Food Biosci., 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.100921.
 H. H. Piña, C. Montaña, and M. D. C. Mandujano, “Fruit abortion in the Chihuahuan-Desert endemic cactus Opuntia microdasys,” Plant Ecol., 2007, doi: 10.1007/s11258-007-9269-x.
 M. Dick, C. Limberger, R. Cruz Silveira Thys, A. de Oliveira Rios, and S. Hickmann Flôres, “Mucilage and cladode flour from cactus (Opuntia monacantha) as alternative ingredients in gluten-free crackers,” Food Chem., 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126178.
 Horticulture unlimited inc., “Indian Fig.”
 T. E. Woodman, S. Chen, Z. Emberts, D. Wilner, W. Federle, and C. W. Miller, “Developmental Nutrition Affects the Structural Integrity of a Sexually Selected Weapon,” Integr. Comp. Biol., 2021, doi: 10.1093/icb/icab130.
 L. D. Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., “Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health.”
 S. Sharma, S. L. Thakur, S. K. Joshi, and S. S. Kulkarni, “Measurement of gingival thickness using digital vernier caliper and ultrasonographic method: a comparative study,” J. Investig. Clin. Dent., 2014, doi: 10.1111/jicd.12026.
 K. Mokoboki, T. Kgama, and N. Mmbi, “Evaluation of cactus pear fruit quality at Mara ADC, South Africa,” African J. Agric. Res., 2009.
 J. Vidaurre-Ruiz, F. Salas-Valerio, R. Schoenlechner, and R. Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, “Rheological and textural properties of gluten-free doughs made from Andean grains,” Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2021, doi: 10.1111/ijfs.14662.
 X. Wang, G. Kaçar, and K. M. Daane, “Temporal dynamics of host use by Drosophila suzukii in California’s San Joaquin valley: Implications for area-wide pest management,” Insects, 2019, doi: 10.3390/insects10070206.