Hydro & Engineering Geological Implications of Extracting the Salty Deep Groundwater on the Mobilization of Fresh Water Resources in the Lower Zarqa River Area, Jordan
Arwa Tarawneh , Prof. Elias Salameh
Extractions of deep salty groundwater from the Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the lower reaches of Zarqa River have lead to mobilizing overlying fresh ground- and surface water bodies to replace the extracted salty water leading herewith to the dissolution of evaporates from the rock matrix. This has, in turn, lead to the formation of small (Decimeter) underground cavities which widened with time to form huge underground cavities many 10s of meters), which ceilings collapsed and created sink holes at ground surface. This article discusses the geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the area of lower Zarqa River and quantifies the effects of the pumping of salty groundwater on the mobilization of fresh water, which is leading to the formation of underground cavities and sink holes at ground surface. The study shows that understanding the groundwater recharge, flow and discharge regime and the effects of disturbing that regime must be clarified before deciding to implement projects which may lead to damage to the groundwater system and become fiasco projects. The study concluded that pumping water from the deep salty Triassic and Jurassic rocks is equivalent to extracting water from Zarqa River itself, because the extracted water is being substituted by the Zarqa River water.
Deep mineralized water, extraction, hydro- and engineering geological implications, Zarqa River/Jordan
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[Arwa Tarawneh , Prof. Elias Salameh (2016) Hydro & Engineering Geological Implications of Extracting the Salty Deep Groundwater on the Mobilization of Fresh Water Resources in the Lower Zarqa River Area, Jordan IJIRCST Vol-3 Issue-4 Page No-320-338] (ISSN 2347 - 5552). www.ijircst.org
Department of Geology, University of Jordan, Amman 11942/ Jordan